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Initial project plan

State of the art and preliminary work

The exchange processes between groundwater and surface waters are of increasing importance to better understand the functioning of coupled hydro- and environmental systems (DWA 2013, Gualtieri et al. 2012), such as self-purification (Sophocleous 2002, Fischer et al. 2003). The interface domain is generally characterised by highly active biota leading to steep biogeochemical gradients (Birgand et al. 2007, Greskowiak et al. 2006) and will be strongly influenced by climate change (Nützmann & Mey 2007). In principal, there are two different ways of modelling the exchange processes between groundwater and surface water: (i) coupling a groundwater with a surface water model, or (ii) an integral approach. The first way is chosen in N6 (see Wörmann & Wachniev 2007, Cardenas & Wilson 2007, Nützmann & Lewandowski 2009, Trauth et al. 2013) and is not discussed here. In integral approaches – of which there are few – groundwater and surface water are solved together in one system of equations (Therrien et al. 2008). The integral single-domain approach is based on extensions of Darcy’s law towards the full Navier-Stokes equations, i.e. the same equations are solved in the porous medium and surface water, however accounting for different properties (porosity, permeability, viscosity) in the different continua (Khalili et al. 1999, Albers 2006, Dogan 2011). The results are very decisive concerning the spatial variation of the above-mentioned properties in the transition zone between the two continua. For the turbulent viscosity and diffusivity constant values are chosen, possibly different in the different continua. To the best of our knowledge, there are no integral models which use higher turbulence models (e.g. algebraic, k-e or LES (Large Eddy Simulation), see Malcherek 2001) and which account for reactive transport. Schankat has developed a fully-coupled density-driven 2D flow and multi-component biogeochemical reactive transport model for groundwater (Schankat 2009, Schankat et al. 2009, Hinkelmann 2005) called DiaTrans which is based on the Finite-Volume method and embedded in an object-oriented framework. The model of Albers (2000) includes flow, diffusion and adsorption in a porous medium. Simons et al. (2014) have developed a 2D shallow water model also in an object-oriented framework (HMS) using robust high order schemes (Hou 2013, Hou et al. 2013a, b). In further research related to this planned doctoral thesis, 2D and 3D shallow water flow and transport models were applied to simulate impacts of sewer overflow in river Spree and of treated wastewater in the Unterhavel by Jourieh et al. (2009) and Jourieh (2014).

Aims and work steps

The aim of this doctoral thesis is the development of an integral single domain model for the flow, transport and reaction processes which occur in the interface domain of surface water and groundwater. Starting with the DiaTrans model (Schankat 2009), the Darcy law will be successively extended to a Forchheimer-Brinkman-Lapwood type to account for all terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Sensitivity studies will be carried out on the spatial variation of porosity, permeability and constant turbulent viscosity in the transition zone between the two continua as well as on the thickness of the transition zone. Then, the suitability of more complex turbulence models such as algebraic ones or LES will be investigated also accounting for different bed forms (e.g. plain, riffles; see Xie et al. 2013). In further steps, conservative and reactive transport of selected components will be included. For multi-component reactive transport, special approaches to account for mixing will be considered (e.g. Cirpka 2002). Special discretisation methods and robust solvers must be applied and developed to account for the steep physical and biogeochemical gradients. The new model will first be applied on a small scale and it will be compared to laboratory and field measurements in the range of available data (e.g. from N6: Panke, Erpe; T4: Wannsee, Teltow channel; N5: Lake Tegel) as well as to the coupled approach of groundwater surface water modelling of N6.

Connections to interfaces and other doctoral theses

This doctoral thesis will be carried out in very close collaboration with N6 considering data and modelling. Common questions related to modelling will be discussed with T4, T3, N5 and T1. There are further links to the aquatic sediments and reactive transport of N3 and N1. 



Albers,B. (2000): Coupling of Adsorption and Diffusion in Porous and Granular Materials. A 1-D Example of the Boundary Value Problem. Arch.Appl.Mech. 70(7), 519-531

Albers, B. (2006): Monochromatic Surface Waves at the Interface between Poroelastic and Fluid Halfspaces. Proc. Royal Soc. A , Vol. 462, No. 2067, 701-723

Birgand,F., Skaggs,R.W., Chescheir,G.M. & Gilliam,J.W. (2007): Nitrogen removal in streams of agricultural catchments-a literature review. Crit. Rev. in Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 381-487

Cardenas,M.B. & Wilson,J.L. (2007): Hydrodynamics of coupled flow above and below a sediment-water interface with triangular bedforms. Adv. Wat. Resour., 30 (3), 301-313

Cirpka,O. (2002): Dilution and Mixing in Soils and Aquifers. Habilitation thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Stuttgart

Dogan,M.O. (2011): Coupling of porous media flow with pipe flow. Dissertation, Mitteilungen Heft 199, Institut für Wasserbau, Universität Stuttgart

DWA-Themen HW 1.4 – T2 (2013): Wechselwirkung zwischen Grund- und Oberflächenwasser. DWA, Hennef

Fischer,H., Kloep,F., Wilzcek,S. & Pusch,M.T. (2005): A river’s liver-microbial processes within the hyporheic zone of a large lowland river. Biogeochem, 76, 349-371

Greskowiak,J., Prommer,H., Massmann,G. & Nützmann,G. (2006): Modelling seasonal redox dynamics and the corresponding fate of the pharmaceutical residue Phenazone during artificial recharge of groundwater. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 (21), 6615-6621

Gualtieri,C., Dragutin,T. & Mihailovic,D.T. (2012): Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group

Hinkelmann,R. (2005): Efficient Numerical Methods and Information-Processing Techniques for Modeling Hydro- and Environmental Systems. Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, Vol. 21, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Hou,J. (2013): Robust Numerical Methods for Shallow Water Flows and Advective Transport Simulation on Unstructured Grids. Doctoral Thesis, Vol. 13, Book Series of the Institute of Civil Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin

Hou,J., Liang,Q., Simons,F. & Hinkelmann,R. (2013a): A 2D well-balanced shallow flow model for unstructured grids with novel slope source term treatment. Advances in Water Resources 52 (2013), pp. 107–131, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.08.003

Hou,J., Simons,F., Mahgoub,M. & Hinkelmann,R. (2013b): A robust well-balanced model on unstructured grids for shallow water flows with wetting and drying over complex topography. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Elsevier, Vol. 257, pp. 126-149, DOI.org/10.1016/j.cma.2013.01.015

Jourieh,A., Heinl,M., Hinkelmann,R. & Barjenbruch,M. (2009): Simulation of Combined Sewer Overflows Spreading in a Slowly Flowing Urban River, 33rd IAHR Congress: Water Engineering for a Sustainable Environment. Vancouver, British Columbia Canada, ISBN: 978-90-78046-08-0

Jourieh,A. (2014): Multi-dimensional Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Transport Processes in Surface Water Systems. Doctoral Thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, to be published in Book Series of the Institute of Civil Engineering

Khalili,A., Basu,A.J., Pietrzyk,U. & Jörgensen,B. B. (1999): Advective transport through permeable sediments: a numerical and experimental approach. Acta Mechanica, 132, 221-227

Malcherek,A. (2001): Hydromechanik der Oberflächengewässer. Habilitation, Bericht Nr. 61, Institut für Strömungsmechanik und elektronisches Rechnen im Bauwesen

Nützmann,G. & Mey,S. (2007): Model based estimation of runoff changes in a small watershed of north-eastern Germany. Journal of Hydrology, 334, 467-476

Nützmann,G. & Lewandowski,J. (2009): Exchange between ground water and surface water at the lowland river Spree (Germany). Grundwasser, 14, 195-205

Schankat,M. (2009): DiaTrans-A Multi-Component Model for Density-Driven Flow, Transport and Biogeochemical Reaction Processes in the Subsurface. Doctoral Thesis, Vol. 04, Book Series of the Institute of Civil Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin [This thesis, supervised by Prof. Hinkelmann, won the Tiburtius Award for an excellent doctoral thesis in 2010, from the Federal Conference of the Rectors and Presidents of Berlin's Universities.]

Simons,F., Hou,J., Özgen,I., Busse,T., & Hinkelmann,R. (2014): A model for overland flow and associated processes within the Hydroinformatics Modelling System. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16 (2), 375-391, DOI:10.2166/hydro.2013.173

Sophocleous,M. (2002): Interactions between groundwater and surface water: The state of the science. Hydrogeol. J., 10 (1), 52-67

Therrien,R., McLaren,R.G., Sudicky,R.A. & Panday,S.M. (2008): HydroGeoSphere: A threedimensional numerical model describing fully-integrated subsurface and surface flow and solute transport. Manual, Groudwater Simulations Group, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Trauth,N., Schmidt,C., Maier,U., Vieweg,M. & Fleckenstein,J.H. (2013): Coupled 3D model of turbulent stream flow and hyporheic flow under varying stream and ambient groundwater flow conditions. Water Resour. Res., 49: 1-17

Wörman,A. & Wachniew,P. (2007): Reach scale and evaluation methods as limitations for transient storage properties in streams and rivers. Water Resour. Res., 43 (10), W10405

Xie,Z., Lin,B., Falconer,R.A. & Maddux,T.B. (2013): Large-eddy simulation of turbulent openchannel flow over three-dimensional dunes. Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 494-505


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