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Common approach 1
Common approach 1 addresses complex and coupled flow, transport and biogeochemical reactions, which play key roles in mass and heat transfer across urban water interfaces including:
- littoral areas of natural aquatic ecosystems where bank filtration occurs and micropollutants are degraded (F1, F2, F3),
- sediments where contaminants and nutrients can be remobilised (H1, H2) and greenhouse gases can be released (F4),
- water surfaces where water, gases and heat are exchanged with the atmosphere (F4, S1, S2),
- interfaces between technical water treatment infrastructure and natural water bodies (F3),
- sewer pipes where corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogene sulphide) are produced (S1, S2),
- partially paved surfaces which collect and contaminate rain water (W2, W3),
- solid technical and natural surfaces where sorption of contaminants occurs (H1) and aquatic biofilms degrading pollutants (H4).
experiments and observations will be carried out on different scales
including laboratory experiments
(H3, H4, S1) and empirical studies at the field scale (F1, F2, F3, F4, H1, W2, W3). Scaling issues will be approached (F4, W1, W3), measurement techniques will be developed (H1) and new kinetics will be determined (H3, H4). A unique pilot plant is available to further investigate the formation of odour and corrosion in sewer systems as a basis for designing countermeasures. The expected improved understanding of interface processes will contribute to practical applications such as improved ecosystem management and design and operation of technical infrastructure, and the interplay of both.